FreeBSD Handbook

The FreeBSD Documentation Project

Welcome to FreeBSD! This handbook covers the installation and day to day use of FreeBSD 4.11-RELEASE and FreeBSD 5.4-RELEASE. This manual is a work in progress and is the work of many individuals. Many sections do not yet exist and some of those that do exist need to be updated. If you are interested in helping with this project, send email to the FreeBSD documentation project mailing list. The latest version of this document is always available from the FreeBSD web site. It may also be downloaded in a variety of formats and compression options from the FreeBSD FTP server or one of the numerous mirror sites. If you would prefer to have a hard copy of the handbook, you can purchase one at the FreeBSD Mall. You may also want to search the handbook.

Table of Contents
I. Getting Started
1 Introduction
1.1 Synopsis
1.2 Welcome to FreeBSD!
1.3 About the FreeBSD Project
2 Installing FreeBSD
2.1 Synopsis
2.2 Pre-installation Tasks
2.3 Starting the Installation
2.4 Introducing Sysinstall
2.5 Allocating Disk Space
2.6 Choosing What to Install
2.7 Choosing Your Installation Media
2.8 Committing to the Installation
2.9 Post-installation
2.10 Supported Hardware
2.11 Troubleshooting
2.12 Advanced Installation Guide
2.13 Preparing Your Own Installation Media
3 UNIX Basics
3.1 Synopsis
3.2 Virtual Consoles and Terminals
3.3 Permissions
3.4 Directory Structure
3.5 Disk Organization
3.6 Mounting and Unmounting File Systems
3.7 Processes
3.8 Daemons, Signals, and Killing Processes
3.9 Shells
3.10 Text Editors
3.11 Devices and Device Nodes
3.12 Binary Formats
3.13 For More Information
4 Installing Applications: Packages and Ports
4.1 Synopsis
4.2 Overview of Software Installation
4.3 Finding Your Application
4.4 Using the Packages System
4.5 Using the Ports Collection
4.6 Post-installation Activities
4.7 Dealing with Broken Ports
5 The X Window System
5.1 Synopsis
5.2 Understanding X
5.3 Installing X11
5.4 X11 Configuration
5.5 Using Fonts in X11
5.6 The X Display Manager
5.7 Desktop Environments
II. Common Tasks
6 Desktop Applications
6.1 Synopsis
6.2 Browsers
6.3 Productivity
6.4 Document Viewers
6.5 Finance
6.6 Summary
7 Multimedia
7.1 Synopsis
7.2 Setting Up the Sound Card
7.3 MP3 Audio
7.4 Video Playback
7.5 Setting Up TV Cards
7.6 Image Scanners
8 Configuring the FreeBSD Kernel
8.1 Synopsis
8.2 Why Build a Custom Kernel?
8.3 Building and Installing a Custom Kernel
8.4 The Configuration File
8.5 Making Device Nodes
8.6 If Something Goes Wrong
9 Printing
9.1 Synopsis
9.2 Introduction
9.3 Basic Setup
9.4 Advanced Printer Setup
9.5 Using Printers
9.6 Alternatives to the Standard Spooler
9.7 Troubleshooting
10 Linux Binary Compatibility
10.1 Synopsis
10.2 Installation
10.3 Installing Mathematica®
10.4 Installing Maple
10.5 Installing MATLAB®
10.6 Installing Oracle®
10.7 Installing SAP® R/3®
10.8 Advanced Topics
III. System Administration
11 Configuration and Tuning
11.1 Synopsis
11.2 Initial Configuration
11.3 Core Configuration
11.4 Application Configuration
11.5 Starting Services
11.6 Configuring the cron Utility
11.7 Using rc under FreeBSD 5.X
11.8 Setting Up Network Interface Cards
11.9 Virtual Hosts
11.10 Configuration Files
11.11 Tuning with sysctl
11.12 Tuning Disks
11.13 Tuning Kernel Limits
11.14 Adding Swap Space
11.15 Power and Resource Management
11.16 Using and Debugging FreeBSD ACPI
12 The FreeBSD Booting Process
12.1 Synopsis
12.2 The Booting Problem
12.3 The MBR, and Boot Stages One, Two, and Three
12.4 Kernel Interaction During Boot
12.5 Device Hints
12.6 Init: Process Control Initialization
12.7 Shutdown Sequence
13 Users and Basic Account Management
13.1 Synopsis
13.2 Introduction
13.3 The Superuser Account
13.4 System Accounts
13.5 User Accounts
13.6 Modifying Accounts
13.7 Limiting Users
13.8 Personalizing Users
13.9 Groups
14 Security
14.1 Synopsis
14.2 Introduction
14.3 Securing FreeBSD
14.4 DES, MD5, and Crypt
14.5 One-time Passwords
14.6 TCP Wrappers
14.7 KerberosIV
14.8 Kerberos5
14.9 OpenSSL
14.10 VPN over IPsec
14.11 OpenSSH
14.12 File System Access Control Lists
14.13 Monitoring Third Party Security Issues
14.14 FreeBSD Security Advisories
14.15 Process Accounting
15 Mandatory Access Control
15.1 Synopsis
15.2 Key Terms in this Chapter
15.3 Explanation of MAC
15.4 Understanding MAC Labels
15.5 Module Configuration
15.6 The MAC bsdextended Module
15.7 The MAC ifoff Module
15.8 The MAC portacl Module
15.9 MAC Policies with Labeling Features
15.10 The MAC partition Module
15.11 The MAC Multi-Level Security Module
15.12 The MAC Biba Module
15.13 The MAC LOMAC Module
15.14 Implementing a Secure Environment with MAC
15.15 Another Example: Using MAC to Constrain a Web Server
15.16 Troubleshooting the MAC Framework
16 Storage
16.1 Synopsis
16.2 Device Names
16.3 Adding Disks
16.4 RAID
16.5 USB Storage Devices
16.6 Creating and Using Optical Media (CDs)
16.7 Creating and Using Optical Media (DVDs)
16.8 Creating and Using Floppy Disks
16.9 Creating and Using Data Tapes
16.10 Backups to Floppies
16.11 Backup Basics
16.12 Network, Memory, and File-Backed File Systems
16.13 File System Snapshots
16.14 File System Quotas
16.15 Encrypting Disk Partitions
17 The Vinum Volume Manager
17.1 Synopsis
17.2 Disks Are Too Small
17.3 Access Bottlenecks
17.4 Data Integrity
17.5 Vinum Objects
17.6 Some Examples
17.7 Object Naming
17.8 Configuring Vinum
17.9 Using Vinum for the Root Filesystem
18 Localization - I18N/L10N Usage and Setup
18.1 Synopsis
18.2 The Basics
18.3 Using Localization
18.4 Compiling I18N Programs
18.5 Localizing FreeBSD to Specific Languages
19 The Cutting Edge
19.1 Synopsis
19.3 Synchronizing Your Source
19.4 Rebuilding “world”
19.5 Tracking for Multiple Machines
IV. Network Communication
20 Serial Communications
20.1 Synopsis
20.2 Introduction
20.3 Terminals
20.4 Dial-in Service
20.5 Dial-out Service
20.6 Setting Up the Serial Console
21 PPP and SLIP
21.1 Synopsis
21.2 Using User PPP
21.3 Using Kernel PPP
21.4 Troubleshooting PPP Connections
21.5 Using PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)
21.6 Using PPP over ATM (PPPoA)
21.7 Using SLIP
22 Electronic Mail
22.1 Synopsis
22.2 Using Electronic Mail
22.3 sendmail Configuration
22.4 Changing Your Mail Transfer Agent
22.5 Troubleshooting
22.6 Advanced Topics
22.7 SMTP with UUCP
22.8 Setting Up to Send Only
22.9 Using Mail with a Dialup Connection
22.10 SMTP Authentication
22.11 Mail User Agents
22.12 Using fetchmail
22.13 Using procmail
23 Network Servers
23.1 Synopsis
23.2 The inetd “Super-Server”
23.3 Network File System (NFS)
23.4 Network Information System (NIS/YP)
23.5 Automatic Network Configuration (DHCP)
23.6 Domain Name System (DNS)
23.7 BIND9 and FreeBSD
23.8 Apache HTTP Server
23.9 File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
23.10 File and Print Services for Microsoft® Windows® clients (Samba)
23.11 Clock Synchronization with NTP
24 Firewalls
24.1 Introduction
24.2 Firewall Concepts
24.3 Firewall Packages
24.4 The OpenBSD Packet Filter (PF) and ALTQ
24.5 The IPFILTER (IPF) Firewall
24.6 IPFW
25 Advanced Networking
25.1 Synopsis
25.2 Gateways and Routes
25.3 Wireless Networking
25.4 Bluetooth
25.5 Bridging
25.6 Diskless Operation
25.7 ISDN
25.8 Network Address Translation
25.9 Parallel Line IP (PLIP)
25.10 IPv6
25.11 Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) on FreeBSD 5.X
V. Appendices
A. Obtaining FreeBSD
A.1 CDROM and DVD Publishers
A.2 FTP Sites
A.3 Anonymous CVS
A.4 Using CTM
A.5 Using CVSup
A.6 CVS Tags
A.7 AFS Sites
A.8 rsync Sites
B. Bibliography
B.1 Books & Magazines Specific to FreeBSD
B.2 Users' Guides
B.3 Administrators' Guides
B.4 Programmers' Guides
B.5 Operating System Internals
B.6 Security Reference
B.7 Hardware Reference
B.8 UNIX® History
B.9 Magazines and Journals
C. Resources on the Internet
C.1 Mailing Lists
C.2 Usenet Newsgroups
C.3 World Wide Web Servers
C.4 Email Addresses
C.5 Shell Accounts
D. PGP Keys
D.1 Officers
D.2 Core Team Members
D.3 Developers
FreeBSD Glossary
List of Tables
2-1. Sample Device Inventory
2-2. Partition Layout for First Disk
2-3. Partition Layout for Subsequent Disks
2-4. Possible Security Profiles
2-5. FreeBSD 4.X ISO Image Names and Meanings
2-6. FreeBSD 5.X ISO Image Names and Meanings
3-1. Disk Device Codes
16-1. Physical Disk Naming Conventions
17-1. Vinum Plex Organizations
25-1. Wiring a Parallel Cable for Networking
25-2. Reserved IPv6 addresses
List of Figures
2-1. Kernel Configuration Menu
2-2. The Kernel Device Configuration Visual Interface
2-3. Expanded Driver List
2-4. Driver Configuration With No Conflicts
2-5. Sysinstall Main Menu
2-6. Typical Device Probe Results
2-7. Select Sysinstall Exit
2-8. Selecting Usage from Sysinstall Main Menu
2-9. Selecting Documentation Menu
2-10. Sysinstall Documentation Menu
2-11. Sysinstall Main Menu
2-12. Sysinstall Keymap Menu
2-13. Sysinstall Main Menu
2-14. Sysinstall Options
2-15. Begin Standard Installation
2-16. Select Drive for FDisk
2-17. Typical Fdisk Partitions before Editing
2-18. Fdisk Partition Using Entire Disk
2-19. Sysinstall Boot Manager Menu
2-20. Exit Select Drive
2-21. Sysinstall Disklabel Editor
2-22. Sysinstall Disklabel Editor with Auto Defaults
2-23. Free Space for Root Partition
2-24. Edit Root Partition Size
2-25. Choose the Root Partition Type
2-26. Choose the Root Mount Point
2-27. Sysinstall Disklabel Editor
2-28. Choose Distributions
2-29. Confirm Distributions
2-30. Choose Installation Media
2-31. Selecting an Ethernet Device
2-32. Set Network Configuration for ed0
2-33. Editing inetd.conf
2-34. Default Anonymous FTP Configuration
2-35. Edit the FTP Welcome Message
2-36. Editing exports
2-37. Security Profile Options
2-38. System Console Configuration Options
2-39. Screen Saver Options
2-40. Screen Saver Timeout
2-41. System Console Configuration Exit
2-42. Select Your Region
2-43. Select Your Country
2-44. Select Your Time Zone
2-45. Select Mouse Protocol Type
2-46. Set Mouse Protocol
2-47. Configure Mouse Port
2-48. Setting the Mouse Port
2-49. Enable the Mouse Daemon
2-50. Test the Mouse Daemon
2-51. Network Configuration Upper-level
2-52. Select a default MTA
2-53. Ntpdate Configuration
2-54. Network Configuration Lower-level
2-55. Select Configuration Method Menu
2-56. Select Default Desktop
2-57. Select Package Category
2-58. Select Packages
2-59. Install Packages
2-60. Confirm Package Installation
2-61. Select User
2-62. Add User Information
2-63. Exit User and Group Management
2-64. Exit Install
17-1. Concatenated Organization
17-2. Striped Organization
17-3. RAID-5 Organization
17-4. A Simple Vinum Volume
17-5. A Mirrored Vinum Volume
17-6. A Striped Vinum Volume
17-7. A Mirrored, Striped Vinum Volume
List of Examples
2-1. Using an Existing Partition Unchanged
2-2. Shrinking an Existing Partition
3-1. Sample Disk, Slice, and Partition Names
3-2. Conceptual Model of a Disk
4-1. Downloading a Package Manually and Installing It Locally
11-1. Creating a Swapfile on FreeBSD 4.X
11-2. Creating a Swapfile on FreeBSD 5.X
12-1. boot0 Screenshot
12-2. boot2 Screenshot
12-3. An Insecure Console in /etc/ttys
13-1. Configuring adduser and adding a user on FreeBSD 4.X
13-2. Adding a user on FreeBSD 5.X
13-3. rmuser Interactive Account Removal
13-4. Interactive chpass by Superuser
13-5. Interactive chpass by Normal User
13-6. Changing Your Password
13-7. Changing Another User's Password as the Superuser
13-8. Adding a Group Using pw(8)
13-9. Adding Somebody to a Group Using pw(8)
13-10. Using id(1) to Determine Group Membership
14-1. Using SSH to Create a Secure Tunnel for SMTP
16-1. Using dump over ssh
16-2. Using dump over ssh with RSH set
16-3. A Script for Creating a Bootable Floppy
16-4. Using vnconfig to Mount an Existing File System Image under FreeBSD 4.X
16-5. Creating a New File-Backed Disk with vnconfig
16-6. Using mdconfig to Mount an Existing File System Image under FreeBSD 5.X
16-7. Creating a New File-Backed Disk with mdconfig
16-8. Configure and Mount a File-Backed Disk with mdmfs
16-9. md Memory Disk under FreeBSD 4.X
16-10. Creating a New Memory-Based Disk with mdconfig
16-11. Creating a New Memory-Based Disk with mdmfs
20-1. Adding Terminal Entries to /etc/ttys
22-1. Configuring the sendmail Access Database
22-2. Mail Aliases
22-3. Example Virtual Domain Mail Map
23-1. Sending inetd a HangUP Signal
23-2. Mounting an Export with amd
25-1. Branch Office or Home Network
25-2. Head Office or Other LAN
A-1. Checking Out Something from -CURRENT (ls(1)) and Deleting It Again:
A-2. Using SSH to check out the src/ tree:
A-3. Checking Out the Version of ls(1) in the 3.X-STABLE Branch:
A-4. Creating a List of Changes (as Unified Diffs) to ls(1)
A-5. Finding Out What Other Module Names Can Be Used:

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